2.1 Security Principles
Web application security is a central component of any web-based business. The global reach of the Internet and the potential for massive financial gains attract criminals who see opportunities in the vulnerabilities of web applications. Understanding fundamental security principles is the first step toward mitigating these threats.
There are several key security principles that every developer should be aware of:
- Least Privilege: Every module (such as a process, a user, or a program, depending on the subject) must be able to access only the information and resources necessary for its legitimate purpose.
- Fail-Safe Defaults: Base access decisions on permission rather than exclusion. This means that the default situation is a lack of access, and the protection scheme identifies conditions under which access is permitted.
- Defense in Depth: Multiple layers of security controls (defense) are placed throughout an information technology (IT) system. It intends to provide redundancy if a security control fails or a vulnerability is exploited.
- Complete Mediation: Every access to every object must be checked for authority. This should happen every time, not cached or remembered.
2.2 Common Web Application Vulnerabilities
Some of the most common web application vulnerabilities include:
- Injection: Injection flaws occur when an application sends untrusted data to an interpreter.
- Broken Authentication: Application functions related to authentication and session management are often implemented incorrectly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords or keys.
- Sensitive Data Exposure: Many web applications and APIs do not adequately protect sensitive financial, healthcare, and PII data.
- XML External Entities (XXE): Older or poorly configured XML processors evaluate external entity references within XML documents. This can be exploited to extract data, perform denial of service attacks, or achieve remote code execution.
- Cross-Site Scripting (XSS): XSS flaws occur when an application includes untrusted data in a new web page without proper validation or escaping, allowing attackers to execute scripts in the victim's browser.
Each of these vulnerabilities represents a potential point of attack. In the coming chapters, we'll discuss these vulnerabilities in more detail and provide guidance on securing your applications against them.
2.3 Real-World Examples of Security Breaches
There are countless examples of security breaches affecting all kinds of organizations worldwide. To illustrate the potential impact of a security breach, let's consider a couple of high-profile incidents:
- Equifax: In 2017, Equifax, one of the three largest consumer credit reporting agencies in the United States, reported a massive data breach. The breach compromised sensitive information, including social security numbers, for nearly half of the U.S. population.
These breaches, and many more like them, underscore the importance of web application security. They highlight the need for secure coding practices and the importance of properly handling and protecting sensitive data.
In the next chapters, we will explore secure coding principles, dive deep into API security, and look at the OWASP Top 10 vulnerabilities for web applications and APIs. As we navigate these topics, remember that the goal is to understand the threats and learn how to mitigate them effectively.