Developed by Microsoft, STRIDE is a threat modeling methodology used to identify potential security threats in a system and develop appropriate countermeasures. It is an acronym for six types of threats: Spoofing, Tampering, Repudiation, Information Disclosure, Denial of Service, and Elevation of Privilege. STRIDE is focused on identifying potential threats by categorizing them under these six broad types, and it is often used in conjunction with data flow diagrams (DFDs) to map these threats to specific components or data flows within the system.
The STRIDE Threat Model
STRIDE is an acronym representing six categories of security threats
Unauthorized entities pretending to be another user or machine to gain access to a system. For example, phishing emails often appear to come from a trusted source, tricking users into providing sensitive information.
Unauthorized alterations to your code or data. An example could be a hacker altering a user's account balance in an online banking system.
Instances where users can deny their actions due to lack of evidence. A user might claim they never placed an online order if there's insufficient logging in place to prove otherwise.
4. Information Disclosure
Exposing information to unauthorized individuals. For instance, a coding error might inadvertently reveal user passwords to hackers.
5. Denial of Service (DoS)
Making a service unavailable by overloading it with illegitimate requests. A typical example is a DDoS attack that brings down a website by overwhelming it with traffic.
6. Elevation of Privilege
Instances where an unprivileged user gains elevated permissions, enabling them to perform unauthorized actions. For instance, a hacker might exploit a software vulnerability to gain admin rights in a system.
The Value of STRIDE
The value of STRIDE is manifold. At its core, it provides a structured approach to evaluating potential threats, prompting us to think about security vulnerabilities from multiple angles.
By looking at each STRIDE category separately, we can uncover a range of threats that might not be apparent when looking at the system as a whole. This allows for a comprehensive threat assessment, making it less likely that significant threats are overlooked.
STRIDE also guides the development of security measures, allowing security teams to address threats proactively. This anticipatory approach reduces the likelihood of security breaches, limiting potential damage to systems and data.
Moreover, by employing STRIDE, we cultivate a security-centric culture, ensuring that security considerations are integral to every phase of the software development lifecycle rather than being an afterthought.
When to Apply STRIDE
Applying the STRIDE model is beneficial throughout all stages of software development, from design to deployment and maintenance. Here are some specific instances where STRIDE can be invaluable:
- During System Design: STRIDE can help identify potential threats and vulnerabilities at the earliest stages of software design, ensuring that appropriate security controls are included from the outset.
- When Modifying Existing Systems: If you're updating or changing an existing system, STRIDE can be used to evaluate whether the modifications introduce new vulnerabilities or exacerbate existing ones.
- Post-Breach Analysis: After a security breach, the STRIDE model can be used to understand the nature of the attack, helping identify what went wrong and informing future preventative measures.
- Regular Security Audits: Regularly applying the STRIDE model during security audits helps keep security measures current, as it forces a regular re-evaluation of potential threats.
The STRIDE Threat Model enables a comprehensive application security assessment of potential threats and guides the development of robust security measures, fostering a proactive approach to mitigating cybersecurity risks.